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Basic Working Principle of Plastic Extruder

Basic Working Principle of Plastic Extruder

The production line of the plastic extruder is composed of the extruder (the main body of the machine), die (head), product forming, and collection machinery (auxiliary machine).

How does a plastic extruder work and what is its working principle? The working principle of the plastic extruder in the process of producing plastic products is as follows. It is necessary to select an extruder production line suitable for the variety of raw materials and product specifications. Through the adjustment and control of parameters such as temperature (heating and cooling), pressure, and speed, the process of continuous extrusion of plastic products on the extruder production line is achieved.

The extrusion process of plastic (eg. the plastic pipe extrusion line) relies on the screw of the extruder to convey, compact, and further melt the plastic, so that the plastic is in a completely uniform plasticized state. Then it is extruded through a die under pressure and then shaped by the molding machine. After cooling, the required products are made. Therefore, the plastic extruder is the key equipment for plastic extrusion, which determines the quality and output of extruded products.

The plastic extruder is mainly composed of the screw, the barrel, the heating and cooling system, transmission system, and control system, among which, the screw is the most critical functional part of the extruder, for the screw is responsible for the main functions of the extrusion process such as conveying, compacting, plasticizing, homogenizing, pressurizing, and pumping the material. A typical single-screw extruder screw is the three-stage including the feeding section, the compression section, and the extrusion section (or the homogenization section). The most important parameters of a extruder screw include the screw diameter D, screw length to diameter ratio L/D and compression ratio.

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